The environmental, economic, and social benefits of Chemical Product Service (CPS) models for industrial surface cleaning have been analyzed and published in a number of scientific publications on sustainable development.

2014: UNEP the Business Case for Eco-Innovation
The Case study exhaustively describes the business model and the product and process innovation implemented by SAFECHEM. It emphasizes on the fact that being an eco-innovative company leads to be far ahead of regulation and competition.
2014: Analysis of resource efficiency potentials in SME of the chemical industry
The Association of German Engineers (VDI)
The Case study shows how the SAFECHEM chemical leasing model leads to energy efficiency, through the shift of value proposition and payment unit. It demonstrates how it aligns incentives of the actors to reduce material consumption.

It quantifies a solvent saving of approx. 73%, an energy saving of approx. 50% and air emission reduction of approx. 90%.
2014: Eco-Innovation
Laboratorio Ecoinnovación, Fundació Fòrum Ambiental
The case study enumerates the positive impacts of the SAFECHEM business model: Best available technology, reduction of solvent and energy consumption, cost reduction, risk management and finally the environmental positive impact.
2013: Green Economy in Practice
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
Federation of German industries (BDI)
High cleaning standards require an optimal cleaning process. The financial incentives of the business model offered by SAFECHEM enable a drop of 20% in solvent consumption (in addition to the optimization achieved technically) and a 25% energy saving.
2012: Green Business Model Innovation
Nordic Innovation, Tanja Bisgaard, et al.
The report describes the actors, the drivers and the features of the Chemical Leasing business model of SAFECHEM, while highlighting that the full SAFECHEM solution led to a 98% decrease in solvent consumption. It also mentions barriers faced in implementing the business model.
2011: Green game-changers: 50 Innovations to inspire business transformation -
WWF-UK, Verdantix
This document highlights the game changing shift induced by COMPLEASE™ Chemical leasing: from focusing on sales increase into efficient use of the chemicals. It also mentions the chemical risk management and its positive impacts on Environment and economy.
2008: The Next Industrial Revolution: The Cradle to Cradle-Community
iM. Braungart, W. Donough (Ed.)
The article describes the SAFECHEM solution and how it is adapted to the Cradle to Cradle philosophy.
2008: Chemical Leasing Goes Global: Selling Services Instead of Barrels
Austrian Ministry of the Environment, Th. Jakl, et al.
In the chapter on Austrian Case Studies, the book gives a Best Practice example of Chemical Leasing in metal cleaning in the automotive industry where solvent consumption was reduced by 72%.

2006: Chemical Product Services in the European Union
Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, European Commission, Directorate General, Joint Research Centre
In the chapter on solvents in Europe, the report analyzes the environmental and economic consequences of the introduction of CPS in the field of metal cleaning. Based on a life-cycle analysis and compared with the traditional model for closed-cycle machine technology, introducing safety systems coupled with additional monitoring services leads to: o >80% solvent reduction in waste stream

  • >80% reduction of primary solvents
  • Reduction of environmental impact - a reduction of 10% for photochemical oxidation, 25% for human toxicity and around 70% for other environmental impact categories
 2006:  Products and Services for Tomorrow: Sustainable Innovations for Companies and Consumers
Joanneum Research Graz, I. Kaltenegger, et al.
In the chapter on chemical-based supply processes, the book analyzes service and system innovations like Chemical Management Services, Chemical Leasing, and closed-loop safety systems vis-à-vis their sustainability effects.
 2005: Product Ban Versus Risk Management by Setting Emission and Technology Requirements: The effect of different regulatory schemes taking the use of trichloroethylene in Sweden and Germany as an example
University of Passau, University of Lund, F. Birkenfeld, O. Mont, et al.
Due to regulatory schemes, absolute emissions have declined in Sweden as well as in Germany. However, calculated using a comparative value, the difference between these countries has largely increased. Today, the specific emission of trichloroethylene in Sweden, where the product is banned, is 90 times higher than in Germany. In 1993 it was only nine times higher.
 2005:  Assessment of Environmental and Economic Potentials of CPS in EU
Amsterdam graduate Business School, L. Arslan, et al.
The report analyzes CPS activities in industrial surface cleaning regarding drivers and barriers as well as economic and environmental benefits.

2003:  Occupational Exposure Assessment in Metal Degreasing and Dry Cleaning
ETH Zurich, J. von Grote
The book analyzes the influences of technology innovation and legislation on the occupational exposure in metal degreasing and dry cleaning.

2003:  Innovations for Sustainability: Sustainability as Strategic Factor
Summer (sustainable markets emerge), K. Fichter, M. Arnold
The report analyzes Chemical Product Services for chlorinated solvents including supply, disposal and consultancy with emphasis on the related effects on sustainability.
2003:  Chemical Leasing
Austrian Ministry of the Environment, Th. Jakl, et al.
The book analyzes potential applications for Chemical Leasing Business models and the related sustainability effects. It identifies industrial surface cleaning as an area with great potential.
2002:  Performance Contracting in Markets for Industrial Goods
University of Muenster, Ch. Kleikamp
The book identifies industrial surface cleaning as an industry where Performance Contracting models offer great opportunities to improve the cleaning process and to optimize chemical consumption.
2001:  Creating Eco-Efficient Producer Services
Gothenburg Research Institute, O. Zaring (Ed.), et al.
The book contains an analysis of end-of-life management service in industrial surface cleaning with positive effects on eco-efficiency under the following categories:
  • Impact management:
    "Solvent management service reduces emissions of chlorinated solvents."
  • Resource utilization:
    "Solvent management system reduces evaporation in use and, therefore, allows more to be put to good use."
  • Revalorization:
    "Closed-loop solvent management system allows spent solvent to be recovered for purification and reuse."
1997:  Factor Four: Doubling Wealth - Halving Resource Use
The new report to the Club of Rome, E. von Weizsäcker, et al.
In the chapter on examples of revolutionizing material productivity, the report analyzes the rent-a-chemical philosophy using chlorinated solvents as an example: "This way, solvents can be recovered and reused more than a hundred times."